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APPLICATION

Despite a wealth of animal studies supporting the mentioned health benefits of piperine, only a limited number of trials have been attempted in humans. Table1 shows some human trials of piperine for various biological effects:

Activities of piperine

Effect

Dose, duration

Overall conclusions

References

Anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-degenerative effects

Phenolic compounds in black pepper inhibited the 5-lipoxygenase pathway.

(Prasad, Raghavendra, Lokesh, & Naidu, 2004)

1 h, 37 °C

Piperine inhibited ERK and JNK pathways in murine dendritic cells, which supports its reputed use against some autoimmune diseases such as arthritis and diabetes.

(Bae, Kim, Park, Koo, Jo, Choi, et al., 2012)

3, 6, 12 h

Black pepper extract and its active principles prevented oxidation of human LDL.

(Naidu & Thippeswamy, 2002)

Influence on digestion

1.5 g

P. nigrum administration caused significant increases in parietal and pepsin secretion, potassium loss, and gastric cell exfoliation.

(Myers, Smith, & Graham, 1987)

Bioavailability enhancement

Piperine enhanced serum concentrations, absorption, and bioavailability of curcumin.

(Shoba, Joy, Joseph, Majeed, Rajendran, & Srinivas, 1998)

2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 h

Piperine enhanced coenzyme Q10 gastro-intestinal absorption.

(Badmaev, Majeed, & Prakash, 2000)

5 mg; 14 days

Piperine enhanced serum levels of β-carotene in healthy subjects.

(Badmaev, Majeed, & Norkus, 1999)

Piperine increased β-carotene uptake to overcome vitamin A deficiency.

(Veda & Srinivasan, 2009)

20 µ mol L−1

Piperine increased epigallocatechin-3-gallate bioavailability from tea by inhibiting glucuronidation and gastrointestinal transit.

(Lambert, Hong, Kim, Mishin, & Yang, 2004)

20 mg

Piperine enhanced the oral bioavailability of carbamazepine

(Pattanaik, Hota, Prabhakar, Kharbanda, & Pandhi, 2009)

20 mg

Piperine enhanced the oral bioavailability of phenytoin.

(Velpandian, Jasuja, Bhardwaj, Jaiswal, & Gupta, 2001)

20 mg

Piperine enhanced the oral bioavailability of phenytoin.

(Pattanaik, Hota, Prabhakar, Kharbanda, & Pandhi, 2006)

20 mg; 7 days

Piperine enhances bioavailability of propranolol and theophylline.

(Bano, Raina, Zutshi, Bedi, Johri, & Sharma, 1991)

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